Manufacture of all types of cement
Cements are adhesive materials that can stitch the Particles together and create a solid object from the particles. The definition of cement is so comprehensive that it can include a variety of adhesives including liquid.
- Cement is a very useful binding material in the construction
- It is used in mortar for plastering, masonry work, and pointing.etc.
- It is used for making joints for drains and pipes.
- It is used for the water-tightness of structure.
- It is used in concrete for laying floors, roofs, and constructing lintels, beams, stairs, pillars etc.
- It is used for precast pipes manufacturing, piles, fencing posts etc.
- It is used in the construction of important engineering structures such as bridges, culverts, dams, tunnels, lighthouses, etc.
- It is used in the preparation of foundations, watertight floors, footpaths, etc.
- It is employed for the construction of wells, water tanks, tennis courts, lampposts, telephone cabins, roads, etc.
Manufacture of containers
Paperboard, a very popular packaging material based on wood fibers, is available in many grades, based on the type of wood fiber and the fabrication process. Virgin fibers are obtained directly from trees, either softwood or hardwood trees; recycled fibers are obtained from recycled paper and paperboard.
Manufacture of paperboard requires similar processes to paper manufacture pulping, optional bleaching, and refining, sheet forming, drying, calendering, and winding. Paperboard can be fabricated on different machines, with the fourdrinier and cylinder machines being the most common Papers and paperboards comprise an overlapping network of cellulose fibers that self-bond to form a compact mat.
They are printable and have physical properties, which enable them to be made into various types of flexible, semi-rigid and rigid packaging. There are several different types of paper and paperboard.
Paperboard containers are employed in almost every industry around the world, including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, chemicals, food, bakery, tobacco, soap, textiles, hardware, toys, office products, sporting goods, electronics, and beverages. The importance of paperboard in packaging is clearly indicated by its uses as primary, secondary, and shipping (tertiary) containers.
Manufacture of refractory ceramic building materials
Refractory ceramics enable high temperature processing applications. The base materials are typically alumina, magnesia, or alum inosilicates, though other compositions offer superior performance in specific applications. Containers and structural components are usually highly densified, while porous components are used for insulation and filtration.
Refractory ceramics are extremely heat-resistant engineered materials designed to withstand extreme temperatures required by
- Refractory ceramics used for molten metal filtration formed the materials basis (clay-bonded alumina, cordierite and similar materials).
- Applications for refractory ceramics include crystal growth of semiconductors, metallurgy and steel production, glass manufacturing, solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), nuclear reactors, aerospace and automobile components, protective ceramic coatings, and industrial tooling.
Wholesale of hides and skins, leather
Hides and skins are an end product of animal production. As an end product – although more correctly they are a by-product – they are an important and valuable resource. In the developing world, they are almost never exploited to anything like their full potential. Hides and skins are often thought of as intrinsically unclean and end up being discarded or wasted because of ignorance or misinformation. Others are processed improperly, which greatly reduces their potential value.
- hides are mainly used for footwear, upholstery, leather goods
- Skins are used for clothing, particularly as coats, gloves, leather goods and footwear. It is also used for bookbinding.
- Many traditional drums, especially hand drums like the pandeiro, continue to be made using natural skins.
Manufacture of ice
Including ice for food and nonfood (e.g. cooling) purpose