Sulfur is a chemical element with an atomic number of 16 and an atomic symbol of S. At room temperature, it is a yellow crystalline solid. Even though it is insoluble in water, it is one of the most versatile elements at forming compounds. Sulfur reacts and forms compounds with all elements except gold, iodine, iridium, nitrogen, platinum, tellurium, and the inert gases.
Sulfur has many industrial uses. It is used in the manufacture of black powder, matches and explosives. It is also used to create rubber, in dyes, and as an insecticide and fungicide. It is also used in the manufacturing of sulfuric acid.
Most potassium is obtained from evaporating salt deposits containing sylvite (potassium chloride). It is also obtained from the minerals alunite and carnallite. Orthoclase feldspar is a very common potassium-bearing mineral. Potassium also can be obtained from the electrolysis of potash (KOH).
The largest use of potassium is potassium chloride (KCl) which is used to make fertilizers. This is because potassium is important for plant growth. Industrial applications for potassium include soaps, detergents, gold mining, dyes, glass production, gunpowder, and batteries.
Nitrogen is chiefly obtained by reacting air with hydrogen from natural gas to make ammonia. Nitrogen-bearing minerals are uncommon and include nitratine (sodium nitrate), nitrammite (ammonium nitrate), nitro barite (barium nitrate), and nitro calcite and nitro magnesite.
Nitrogen (N) Key functions is that When plants absorb nitrogen, it’s transformed into amino acids, the proteins that are the building blocks of all cells. …
When applied to soil, nitrogen is converted to mineral form, nitrate, so that plants can take it up.
Some organic methods of adding nitrogen to the soil include:
• Adding composted manure to the soil.
• Planting a green manure crop, such as borage.
• Planting nitrogen fixing plants like peas or beans.
• Adding coffee grounds to the soil
The asphalt is a mixture, which consists of alumina, lime, silica, and asphaltic bitumen. At low temperatures, it is in solid-state and at high temperatures, it is in a liquid state. Asphalt is produced in two different ways as follows:
- Natural asphalt
- Residual asphalt
Forms of Asphalt
- Cutback asphalt
- Asphalt emulsion
- Asphalt cement
- Mastic asphalt
Bitumen is obtained by the partial distillation of crude petroleum. It is also called mineral tar and is present in asphalt. It contains 87% carbon, 11% hydrogen, and 2% oxygen.
Forms of Bitumen
- Cutback bitumen
- Bitumen emulsion
- Plastic bitumen
- Blown bitumen
- Straight run bitumen
Tar is a highly viscous liquid, which contains a high amount of carbon content. It is used for laying surface layers for pavements, preserving wood etc…
Forms of Tar
- Coal tar
- Wood tar
- Mineral tar